Lewis Carroll’s Dodo, Alice in Wonderland
Reward systems hold the promise of digital tracking of students’ effort and decisions in lessons.
But sometimes they backfire, as this teacher points out:
A couple of stories from economic research can enlighten us as to why incentives backfire:
There are two main types of incentives: economic, and social or moral. The fine and the stipend backfired because they substituted an economic incentive for a moral incentive.
Stephen Covey calls the carrot and the stick approach ‘animal psychology’,
‘the great jackass technique of human motivation’.
Daniel Pink also exposes the flaws of carrots and sticks: ‘
Pink asks: ‘does education put too great an emphasis on extrinsic rewards?
We want pupils to develop their intrinsic motivation.
Which extrinsic factors build intrinsic motivation? For many of us at school,
our parents’ expectations, encouragement, recognition, and reinforcement over extended periods
of time helped us internalise our own intrinsic motivation.
But not all kids can rely on this from home. Some kids arrive at school without it, demotivated.
It’s an unlevel playing field within and between schools.
So should school systems compensate for that and level the playing field?
Or does this result in the worst behaved kids getting the most rewards, rewarding disruption
and disincentivising effort? Schools must avoid the perverse incentives
whereby a kid who usually doesn’t try gets a reward for trying a little, once,
and all the kids that try hard all the time get nothing.
If we give too many rewards, kids learn and self-discipline only has value
for these rewards. Giving out sweets and stickers can actually .
Yet some schools are spending up to on such rewards as ipads, laptops and games consoles.
Psychological studies to demonstrate the ‘overjustification’ effect were conducted over 40 years ago in 1971 by Edward Deci. The findings were replicable: once an activity is associated with
an external reward, people are less inclined to participate in the activity without a reward present.
Deci summarises the lessons of self-determination theory: ‘
In , Jonmarshall Reeve corroborates this:
There is a on intrinsic motivation – thanks to Laura McInerney
for signposting me to it. Here is a small sample of hundreds of articles on this,
which exposes a striking paradox:
The effects of teachers’ expectations about students’ motivation on teachers’ autonomy-supportive and controlling behaviours
Daniel Pink popularised this research in his book,
Although it is mainly aimed at the adult workplace (as much of the self-determination research
is on University-age students rather than school-age pupils), it does draw implications for schools. He asks whether
Pink argues that there is a mismatch between what the science says and what schools do.
He says what really motivates us is , and .
Deci‘s psychological research suggests and are the key ingredients, although to my knowledge these are nowhere in the research split out and measured for their relative importance.
I’d build on this and suggest that pupils develop their intrinsic motivation
through three nutrients: , and
I think responsibility is a more foundational nutrient for young primary and secondary school pupils than autonomy; that you can’t be truly autonomous until you’ve achieved responsibility
for your choices and their consequences.
So what might schools do about intrinsic motivation and its nutrients?
The moral of the story from social psychology and behavioural economics is
that we might start by limiting perverse incentives with unintended consequences,
instead applying incentives. To give a small example, a signed postcard or personal phonecall home connects teachers, tutors and parents in a way that sweets or ipads do not.
The most motivating factors are getting genuinely better at something,
and getting recognised by those around us. Mastery and relationships motivate most.
Developing internal responsibility is much harder, but much more enduring than giving out prizes.
I wrote last week about the scientific evidence on developing .
That research suggests that building self-esteem is a red herring, and that building self-discipline
is much more important. The conundrum is that teachers entrust more responsibility
to already motivated pupils, whilst denying motivating responsibility to those they expect
to be demotivated.
Over the next five weeks,
I’ll suggest five ideas that schools might use to find their way out of this conundrum.
You can TCR software and engineering manuals for spontaneously recall – or pass that exam.
I can Turbo Charge Read a novel 6-7 times faster and remember what I’ve read.
I can TCR an instructional/academic book around 20 times faster and remember what I’ve read.
Introduction to Turbo Charged Reading YouTube
A practical overview of Turbo Charged Reading YouTube
How to choose a book. A Turbo Charged Reading YouTube
Emotions when Turbo Charged Reading YouTube
Advanced Reading Skills Perhaps you’d like to join my FaceBook group ?
Perhaps you’d like to check out my sister blogs:
www.innermindworking.blogspot.com gives many ways for you to work with the stresses of life
www.ourinnerminds.blogspot.com which takes advantage of the experience and expertise of others.
www.happyartaccidents.blogspot.com just for fun.
To quote the Dr Seuss himself, “The more that you read, the more things you will know.
The more that you learn; the more places you'll go.